RESMAN’s tracer technology is an ideal solution for Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS), and for geothermal energy with new use cases for our core technology. Our time-tested tracer technology offers an unparalleled insight into the reservoir and has been used in the most challenging and hostile oil and gas environments.
POSITIONED TO LEAD THE ENERGY TRANSITION
Established legacy in traditional energy markets
Proven history of accomplishments and track record of success
Unmatched technological precision and accuracy
Over 15 years of CCUS reservoir monitoring experience
UNIQUE ADVANTAGES OF TRACER TECHNOLOGY
Lowest detection limit
A reliable and safe technology to show the movement of CO2 and water.
Safe and reliable
Helping to increase stakeholder confidence in new energy projects.
Improved reservoir monitoring
Insurance policies ensure the integrity of new projects compared to other technologies with a finite lifetime.
Proof of concept
Direct evidence compared to simulations.
Fast data processing
Processed and analyzed data in two weeks.
STRATEGICALLY CALIBRATED FOR
An in-depth understanding of the flows of water under extremely high temperatures is the key to unlocking geothermal potential.
Tracer technology works regardless of temperature, whereas other technologies can’t be easily deployed in the geothermal environment. At RESMAN, we have multiple success stories and data points illustrating how our tracer technology can help better understand connection significance and gas & liquid flow patterns and offer sweep assessment evaluation for enhanced reservoir management.
ENHANCED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT
A better understanding of reservoir behavior for efficient resource utilization, sustained geothermal power generation, optimized system efficiency and reduced operational cost.
RELIABLE AND ACCURATE
Subsurface signal detectable at extremely low concentrations.
REDUCED EXPLORATION RISKS
Valuable information about subsurface conditions to reduce risks and costs of drilling in unfavorable locations with limited geothermal potential.
ACCURATE RESERVOIR INSIGHT
Reliable characterization of the reservoir and insight on the flow patterns, helping to optimize geothermal well placement and design.
HIGH - RESOLUTION DATA
Unique insight into the flow of fluids through the subsurface, helping to obtain the most accurate and quantifiable characteristics of the reservoir.
INSURANCE FOR THE OPERATORS
Detecting potential water breakthroughs before the reservoir cools down helps to keep the reservoir going.
The In Salah CO2 Storage Project: Lessons Learned and Knowledge Transfer
The In Salah CCS project in central Algeria is a world pioneering onshore CO2 capture and storage project which has built up a wealth of experience highly relevant to CCS projects worldwide. Carbon dioxide from several gas fields is removed from the gas production stream in a central gas processing facility and then the CO2 is compressed, transported and stored underground in the 1.9 km deep Carboniferous sandstone unit at the Krechba field.
Injection commenced in 2004 and since then over 3.8Mt of CO2 has been stored in the subsurface. The storage performance has been monitored using a unique and diverse portfolio of geophysical and geochemical methods, including time-lapse seismic, micro-seismic, wellhead sampling using CO2 gas tracers, down-hole logging and core analysis, surface gas monitoring, groundwater aquifer monitoring and satellite InSAR data. Routines and procedures for collecting and interpreting these data have been developed, and valuable insights into appropriate Monitoring, Modelling and Verification (MMV) approaches for CO2 storage have been gained.
We summarize the key elements of the project life-cycle and identify the key lessons learned from this demonstration project that can be applied to other major CCS projects, notably:
- The need for detailed geological and geomechanical characterization of the reservoir and overburden;
- The importance of regular risk assessments based on the integration of multiple different datasets;
- The importance of flexibility in the design and operation of the capture, compression, and injection system.
The In Salah project thus provides an important case study for knowledge transfer to other major CCS projects in the planning and execution phases.
CO2 Injection at K12-B, the Final Story
In 2003 the mature gas field K12-B was selected as a demonstration site for offshore injection of CO2. The initial project was aimed at investigating the feasibility of CO2 injection and storage in depleted natural gas fields on the Dutch continental shelf, with the objective to realize a permanent CO2 injection facility. Over the years many different aspects related to CO2 storage at K12-B have been researched, most of them widely applicable to other CO2 storage sites as well. CO2 injection and related research projects involving K12-B have continued until 2017, completing a period of almost 15 years of CO2 injection. This paper presents an overview of the most relevant and memorable research topics, their related activities and results.
The K12-B gas field, is located in the Dutch sector of the North Sea, some 150 km northwest of Amsterdam. It was developed and operated by predecessors of the current operator, which since 2017, is Neptune Energy Netherlands B.V. K12-B has been producing natural gas from the Permian age, Upper Slochteren Member (Rotliegend) since 1987. The natural gas produced has a relatively high CO2 content (13%) and the CO2 is separated from the production stream on site, prior to gas transport to shore. The CO2 used to be vented into the atmosphere but from 2004 on it has been injected into the gas field above the gas-water contact; at a depth of approximately 4000 m. K12-B was the first site in the world where CO2 has been re-injected into the same reservoir from which it originated. The average CO2 injection rate could reach 30,000 Nm3 CO2 per day, which is approximately 20 kt per year.
This paper presents an overview of the results and lessons learned of the multiple measurements campaigns and numerous research projects related to the CO2 injection at K12-B since 2004, performed by the operator and TNO. The research ranged from the investigation of top side and well equipment to the behavior of the gas field to social, environmental and risk assessment aspects. This paper will take you through our journey where we encountered anomalous tubing thicknesses, abnormal downhole injection pressures and surprising chemical evaluations. The paper will present how we learned more and more about the reservoir itself through the analysis of tracer chemicals breaking through, continuous extensive reservoir modelling, geomechanical modelling and even the actual back production of re-injected CO2.
This paper shows what valuable knowledge and information the CO2 injection project at K12-B has produced over the years. CO2 injection at K12-B was stopped when end 2017 the separation of CO2 at K12-B itself came to a halt. Without the active separation of CO2 on site there was no supply of CO2 anymore, which could be injected into the reservoir.
A Field Case Study of an Interwell Gas Tracer Test for GAS-EOR Monitoring
Tracer technology has evolved significantly over the years and is now being increasingly used as one of the effective monitoring and surveillance (M&S) tools in the oil and gas industry. Tracer surveys, deployed as either interwell tests or single-well tests, are one of the enabling M&S technologies that can be used to investigate reservoir connectivity and flow performance, measure residual oil saturation, and determine reservoir properties that control displacement processes, particularly in improved oil recovery (IOR) or enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations.
As part of a comprehensive monitoring and surveillance program for a GAS-EOR pilot project, an interwell gas tracer test (IWGTT) was designed and implemented to provide a better understanding of gas flow-paths and gas-phase connectivity between gas injector and producer pairs, gas-phase breakthrough times ("time of flight"), and provide pertinent data for optimizing water-alternating-gas (WAG) field operations. Additional objectives include the detection and tracking of any inadvertent out-of-zone injection, and acquisition of relevant data for gas reactive transport modelling. Four unique tracers were injected into four individual injectors, respectively, and their elution were monitored in four "paired" updip producers.
In addition to the reservoir connectivity and breakthrough times between the injector and producer pairs, the results showed different trends for different areas of the reservoir. The gas-phase breakthrough times are slightly different from the water tracer breakthrough times from a previous inter-well chemical tracer test (IWCTT). Residence times for the tracers indicate different trends for three of the injector-producer pairs compared to the last pair. These trends reflect and support conclusions regarding reservoir heterogeneities also seen from the previous IWCTT, which were not anticipated at the beginning of the GAS-EOR pilot.
This paper reviews the design and implementation of the tracer test, field operational issues, analyses, and interpretation of the tracer results. The tracer data has been very useful in understanding well interconnectivity and dynamic fluid flow in this part of the reservoir. This has led to better reservoir description, improved dynamic simulation model, and optimized WAG sequence.